Published Articles and Rescources on Artificial Food Dyes/Colors

Additional Resources

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Research Articles

Arnold, L. E., Lofthouse, N, & Hurt, E. (2012). Artificial Food Colors and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms: Conclusions to Dye for. The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics. 9:599–609. doi:  10.1007/s13311-012-0133-x

Aungst, Jason. (2011). Evaluation of studies on artificial food colors and behavior disorders in children. 2011. Cited in: Cheeseman MA. Artificial food color additives and child behavior. Environmental Health Perspective. Jan 2012; 120(1): A15–16.

Baer, R. L. and M. Leider (1949). “The effects of feeding certified food azo dyes in para-phenylenediamine-hypersensitive subjects.” Journal of Investigative Dermatology 13(5): 223-32.

Batada A and Jacobson M, (2016). Prevalence of Artificial Food Colors in Grocery Store Products Marketed to Children. Clinical Pediatrics, 55: 1113-1119.

Bateman, Warner, Hutchinson, Dean, Rowlandson, Gant, Grundy, Fitzgerald, & Stevenson (2003). The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children. Archives of Diseases in Children.; 89: 506-511 doi:10.1136/adc.2003.031435

Feingold BF.(1975).  Hyperkinesis and learning disabilities linked to artificial food flavors and colors. American Journal of Nursing. 1975;75:797–803., P. A., K. Lance, et al. (1989). “Additive allergy: allergic gastroenteritis due to yellow dye #6.” Annals of Internal Medicine 111(1): 87-8.

Lagakos, S. and F. Mosteller (1981). “A case study of statistics in the regulatory process: the FD&C Red No. 40 experiments.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 66(1): 197-212.

McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, Kitchin E, Lok K, Porteous L, Prince E, Sonuga-Barke E, Warner JO, and Stevenson J, (2007). Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. Nov 3;370(9598):1560-7.

Michaelsson, G., L. Pettersson, et al. (1974). “Purpura caused by food and drug additives.” Archives of Dermatology 109(1): 49-52.

Mikkelsen, H., J. Larsen, et al. (1978). “Hypersensitivity reactions to food colors with special reference to the natural color annatto extract (butter colour).” Archives of Toxicology: Supplement. 1: 141-143.

Rowe & Rowe (1994). Synthetic food coloring and behavior: A dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study. Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 125, Issue 5, Part 1, pg 691–698. DOI: 

Schab, D. & Trinh, N. (2004). Do Artificial Food Colors Promote Hyperactivity in Children with Hyperactive Syndromes? A Meta-Analysis of Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, Volume 25 - Issue 6 - pp 423-434.

Schnoll, Burshteyn, Cea-Aravena (2003). Nutrition in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Neglected but Important Aspect. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 63-75.

Stevens LJ, Kuczek T, Burgess JR, Hurt E, and Arnold LE, (2011). Dietary sensitivities and ADHD symptoms: thirty-five years of research. Clinical Pediatrics (Phila);50(4):279-93. doi: 10.1177/0009922810384728.

Stevenson LJ, Burgess JR, Stocheslski MA, and Kuczek T, (2015). Amounts of Artificial Food Dyes and Added Sugars in Foods and Sweets Commonly Consumed by Children. Clinical Pediatrics; 54(4):309-21. doi: 10.1177/0009922814530803.

Swanson & Kinsbourne (1980). Food dyes impair performance of hyperactive children on a laboratory learning test. Science, Vol. 207, Issue 4438, pp. 1485-1487. DOI: 10.1126/science.7361102.

Trautlein, J. J. and W. J. Mann (1978). “Anaphylactic shock caused by yellow dye (FD&C No. 5 and FD&C No. 6) in an enema (case report).” Annals of Allergy 41(1): 28-9.